Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the mostsuitable subheading from the list A-G for each of the numbered paragraphs(41-45). There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Mark youranswers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
C. Don’t makejudgments
D. Be realistic about therisks
E. Decide whether towait
F. Ask permission todisagree
G. Identify a sharedgoal
How to Disagree wit Someone More Powerful than You
Your boss proposes a new initiative you think won’t work. Your seniorcolleague outlines aprojecttimelineyouthinkisunrealistic.Whatdoyousaywhenyoudisagreewithsomeonewhohasmore power than you do? How do you decide whether it’s worth speaking up? And ifyou do,what
exactly should you say? Here’s how to disagree with someone more powerfulthan you.
You may decide it’s best to hold off on voicing your opinion. Maybe youhaven’t finished thinking the problem through, the whole discussion was asurprise to you, or you want to get aclearersenseofwhatthegroupthinks.Ifyouthinkotherpeoplearegoingtodisagreetoo,youmight
want to gather your army first. People can contribute experience orinformation to your think—all
the things that would make the disagreement stronger or more valid. It’salso a good idea to delay the conversation if you’re in a meeting or otherpublic space. Discussing the issue in private will make the powerful person feelless threatened.
to be heard if you can connect your disagreement to a “higher purpose”.When you do speak up, don’t assume the link will be clear. You’ll want to stateit overtly, contextualizing your statements so that you’re seen not as adisagreeable underling but as a colleague who’s trying to advance a shared goal.The discussion will then become more like a chess game than a boxing match.
This step may sound overly deferential, but it’s a smart way to give thepowerful person psychological safety and control. You can say something like, “Iknow we seem to be movingtoward a first-quarter commitment here. I have reasonsto think that won’t work. I’d like to lay outmyreasoning.WouldthatbeOK?”Thisgivesthepersonachoice,allowingthemtoverballyoptin.And, assuming they say yes, it will make you feel more confident about voicingyour disagreement.
You might feel your heart racing or your face turning red, but do whateveryou can to remain neutral in both your words and actions. When your bodylanguage communicates reluctance or anxiety, it undercuts the message. It sendsa mixed message, and your counterpart gets to choose what to read. Deep breathscan help, as can speaking more slowly and deliberately. When we feelpanickywetendtotalklouderandfaster.Simplyslowingthepaceandtalkinginaneventonehelpstheotherpersoncalmdownanddoesthesameforyou.Italsomakesyouseemconfident,evenif
researched opinion, but it’s still an opinion,my talk tentatively andslightly understate your confidence.Insteadofsayingsomethinglike“Ifwesetanend-of-quarterdeadline,we’llnever
make it,” say, “This is just my opinion, but I don’t see how we will makethat deadline.” Having asserted your opinion(as a position, not as a fact),demonstrate equal curiosity about other views. Remind the person that this isyour point of view, and then invite critique. Be open to hearing otheropinions.
41. E 本题解题关键在于能否抓住下面段落重点句，第一个关键句在于if 后半句you might want to gather your armyfirst,但与选项中的关键词不匹配，所以继续看第二个关键句 it is also a good idea to delay theconversation.意为延期谈话会是个好主意，与E选项中的关键词wait相呼应，故E为正确答案。
42. G 本段主旨大意为段落首句的后半句，think about what the powerful person caresabout,即想想有权势的人在乎的点，结合倒数第二句中but后提及到的关键词shared goal，与G选项中的关键词完全匹配，故G为正确答案。
43. F本段首句中的but关键转折词加强了首句的重要特征，意为让有权势的人拥有一些心理安全和控制感是一个明智的行为，但与选项无法匹配上。紧接着作者举例示范可以如何表达，倒数第二句Thisgives the person a choice, allowing them to verbally optin.总结这种提出方式的作用，关键词为allowing，与F选项中permission同义。且最后一句，it will make you feel moreconfident about voicing yourdisagreement.提及到了一个关键词disagreement,结合首句和尾句得知给有权势的人心理安全感和控制感的目的是能够让你敢于质疑，故F为正确答案。
44. A 本题的解题关键句第一句在首句的but后半句，意为无论做什么都要保持你的语言和行为中立，第二句为deep breaths canhelp，意为深呼吸会有所帮助，第三句为slowing the pace and talking in an
even tone helps the otherpeople calm down,意为放慢语速也会帮助其他人保持冷静，结合三句的内容得知A选项保持冷静与之匹配，故A为正确答案
45. B 本题解题关键句在于but所在的两句话，其一关键词在于under前缀单词understate,意为保守陈述，第二句I don’t seehow we will make that deadline.意为我不知道如何确定截止日期，以及尾句Be open to hearing otheropinions.愿意聆听其他看法，结合上述含义得出作者建议保持谦卑的姿态，与B选项含义一致，故B为正确答案。